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On June 22nd the Journal of Commerce (JOC) published an article titled “Long-awaited US inventory drawdown spotted” where they state in the first sentence, “Lower US inventories would be a boon from coastal ports to heartland highways”. The notable exception to such a boon, as they cite in the next paragraph of the article, is in warehousing demand. If US inventories are reduced we would expect warehouse demand to be reduced as well. However, economic indicators do not support such a drawdown at this time.
The factors JOC cite as indicators of an inventory drawdown include strong truck and steady intermodal traffic in May 2017, steady consumer spending and manufacturing output, increasing inventory costs, and comparatively low transportation costs. While the May inventory to sales ratios have not been released, we can look at each of the indicators cited by the JOC and whether they support an indication of an inventory drawdown.
According to the American Trucking Association, truck tonnage did indeed increase from April to May by 6.5%. However, this follows three straight declines of 2.6% in each of the previous three months. Despite the increase in truck tonnage in May, it remains to be seen if traffic will continue to increase in the future. The ATA Chief Economist, Bob Costello, said “Despite the robust jump in May, I still expect moderate growth going forward as key sectors of the economy continue to improve slowly”.
US Intermodal Traffic has increased in the last three months to nearly 270,000 Intermodal Units according to the Association of American Railroads. Despite some volatility in traffic over the past year, most monthly readings fall between 250,000 and 270,000 intermodal units. However, volume is clearly down from 2014 and 2015, perhaps from increased competition from the trucking industry and cost cutting actions by the rail carriers.
Consumer spending, if measured by the Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE), has been rising steadily over time for decades. While there was a flattening in the rate of increased consumer spending at the end of 2016, the rate has increased since the beginning of 2017.
Manufacturing production, as measured by real output, has climbed since January 2014 and, following the 3rd Quarter of 2016, has increased by around 1.1%. However, manufacturing production’s role in reducing inventory levels in unclear. For example, raw material inventories may increase concurrently or by even larger amounts with an increase of manufacturing levels. In fact, indexes such as the Institute of Supply Management’s PMI® in May 2017 suggest inventories are growing, not shrinking, in the midst of higher manufacturing.
An inventory carrying cost increase would provide an incentive for supply chain participants to reduce inventories across their network. However, according to CSCMP’s 2017 State of Logistics Report total inventory carrying costs have declined by 3.2% year over year despite a storage cost increase of 1.8%. The financial cost of carrying inventories fell 7.7% year over year. The aforementioned JOC article cites the same. Again, this data would not suggest that an inventory drawback is imminent based upon inventory carrying costs alone.
Transportation costs, as measured by the Producer Price Index for the Transportation Industry, have been relatively stable since 2014. Year over year costs were up 2% in May but down 4.6% since May 2014. As the ratio of inventory carrying costs to transportation cost rises, supply chain manager would likely draw down their inventory levels. Since inventory carrying costs have been falling and transportation levels stable, the aforementioned ratio is shrinking instead.
Finally, the inventory to sales ratio has slowly risen since the Great Recession started in 2010. The gradual rise from 2010-2014 rapidly increased in 2015 then has leveled off. There are likely many reasons for the build up in inventory levels since 2015 but the most fundamental is how inexpensive inventory is to hold. Supply chain participants have much less downside by holding inventory than they have risk of stock-outs and other low inventory related issues.
While inventories may very well be reduced in the near future, based on the economic indicators cited here there are no compelling reasons to believe the reduction is happening now.
Amazon has agreed to purchase Whole Foods for $13.7B, giving them an immediate presence in brick and mortar retail, among other benefits. One other benefit, as cited by C&W’s Ben Conwell, is Whole Foods’ relationship with Instacart. This would allow Amazon to understand Instacart’s online grocery delivery business, who is a competitor to Amazon Fresh. However, the transaction is not finished and Walmart may put in a higher bid.
Warehouse startup ShipBob raised $17.5M in a funding round, allowing them to open distribution centers in more cities. Fulfillment startups such as ShipBob are entering the market to compete with existing parcel carriers, such as UPS and Fedex, to provide next day and two day deliveries for ecommerce companies. They will likely increase the demand for infill properties with immediate access to freeways but may face issues of creditworthiness with landlords.
Taiwanese Foxxconn Technology Group is looking at seven states in the US Midwest to invest $10B or more to manufacture flat-panel screens and related equipment. According to Foxxconn, the investment would create 30,000 to 50,000 jobs. In addition, large manufacturing operations usually bring with them demand from suppliers, who want to be as close to the manufacturing operations as possible. This would create demand for warehouses in close proximity to the eventual plant location.
Advancements in technology are disrupting the function and design of industrial real estate. Since these advancements are believed to be exponential, perhaps to an extent, the industrial real estate of tomorrow promises to be very different than today. Technologies such as autonomous vehicles, 3D printing, robotics, and the internet of things (IoT) exist and will disrupt industrial real estate and supply chain. However, with exponential advancements in technology disruption the future of industrial real estate is very likely to be disrupted by new technological silos which do not exist today.
The most disruptive existing technology to impact industrial real estate in the next five to fifteen years will be autonomous trucks, beginning with autonomous platooning and ending with fully automated tractor-trailers. Site selection will change with autonomous trucks. So will the design of industrial facilities.
Perhaps the most disruptive quality of autonomous trucks will be their interaction with other technologies such as robotics and 3D printing. Autonomous trucks can be sent on milk runs to deliver packages using drones and robots to a multiple customers at the same time. They may also encourage automation in the distribution center by connecting to an internet of things (IoT) within the warehouse, which will coordinate the unloading and loading of the trailers and material handling in the warehouse by robotics. Autonomous trucks may also team with 3D printing to manufacture parts while on the road to the destination.
While the impact of existing technologies on the supply chain and industrial real estate is not fully known, the most impact will most likely come from how these technologies can interact and work together.
Supply Chain Real Estate News
I am happy to announce another edition of the Los Angeles Insider. To download the latest Insider, please click here. Now, here is the latest in Supply Chain Real Estate News…
Food and beverage firms have proposed over 90 cold storage projects totaling more than $1.6 billion. Second quarter will be the strongest in terms of construction starts with 44 projects breaking ground.
Alcoa is moving its headquarters back to Pittsburgh from New York City. The move will only involve 10 employees who will join an existing workforce of 205.
According to New York-based research firm Reis, Inc., demand for ecommerce and international trade has led to an additional 54.7 million square feet of new warehouse/distribution space in 2017.
Blackstone’s non-traded REIT, Blackstone Real Estate Income Trust, acquired a six million square-foot industrial portfolio from High Street Realty for $402 million. The properties are located in Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Harrisburg, Dallas, and Orlando.
GM ceased its Venezuela operations as its manufacturing plant with 2,700 workers was seized by the Venezuelan government liked to a court case there.
Amazon is searching for 1,300 warehouse across Europe to fulfill its one-hour Prime Now delivery service. Amazon first introduced one-hour delivery in Europe in 2015.
Best Buy leased a 479,310 square foot distribution facility in the Los Angeles area city of Compton. Their lease follows UPS’ lease of a 521,816 square foot facility next door in September 2016.
Last week I had the privilege of attending two CoreNet seminars in Dallas. These seminars focused on the financial evaluation of corporate real estate and real estate’s impact on a company’s financial statements. These seminars were excellent and thoughtful reviews of the way real estate professionals should evaluate and think about corporate real estate financially. In this post, I figured I would share some of my thoughts on the topic, including the many lessons learned, and rekindle the news portion of these posts. I hope you enjoy this one and, as always, your feedback is appreciated!
The primary objective of the supply chain real estate professional is to align their real estate portfolio with their company’s objectives. Alignment of real estate and overall business targets can be a complex process involving a wide variety of corporate stakeholders, including corporate finance, operations, and capital markets. This process can often be reduced to balancing efforts to reduce expenses and drive revenue.
How does one execute this balance? By using the universal language of companies…finance. Finance is forward looking and focuses on generating cash from operations, return on investment value, and forecasting metrics.
Discounted Cash Flows
Central to the idea of finance is the concept of the time value of money, which involves a cash flow over periods of time and an appropriate rate of risk to discount them, otherwise known as a discounted cash flow (DCF).
Creating Cash Flows
Cash flows should be estimated on the professional’s best projections (guess). Risk should be accounted for in the discount rate(s), where it can be adjusted over the entire investment or a particular phase of the investment. For example, if a company is considering the purchase of a property and they are believe the risk at the disposition phase of their investment is high, they should adjust the discount rate for that phase so that all cash flows within that phase will be property adjusted for the risk.
For occupiers, a DCF with just real estate cash flows does not show the operational profitability of the real estate. Most supply chain real estate professionals will be familiar with a negative net present value (NPV) for a lease DCF. This is may be acceptable for comparing leases to determine the least negative net present value. However, the lease with the least negative net present value should not be interpreted is the best option for the company. In order to fully examine the real estate opportunity, operational cash flows and tax impacts should be incorporated.
DCFs can have multiple discount rates throughout the time frame of a DCF. For example, you can assign different discount rates for certain phases of a real estate hold such as the purchase, refinance, retrofit, and disposition of the asset.
Establishing the Appropriate Discount Rate(s)
The risk rate, commonly called the discount rate, should be based upon the most appropriate rate of risk for similar investments. For example, a lease with a company is very similar to owning a debt obligation with the company. The company has promised, through a lease, to pay certain amounts over a period of time-just like a bond without the principal payment at the end of the term. Therefore, the appropriate discount rate for such a lease is most likely the company’s cost of borrowing.
Company’s typically should NOT use their weighted average cost of capital (WACC) as their discount rate for real estate DCFs, because it is not indicative of the risk inherent a real estate transaction. A company’s WACC is their market cost of capital (blend of their cost of debt and equity).
Risk can also rise and fall depending on whether the length of the real estate obligation matches the company’s planned period of use. For example, a higher discount rate may be appropriate if a company enters a real estate lease or sublease with a planned period of use less than the lease or sublease term.
Impact on Financial Statements
If real estate cash flows examine the cash impacts of a company’s real estate, real estates impact on financial statements are the overall scorecard. For the supply chain real estate professional, understanding how real estate affects their company’s financial statements is required in order to properly evaluate their real estate portfolio and options.
Financial statements typically exist in three forms; the income statement, the cash flow statement, and the balance sheet. It is important to understand that all three forms are connected but separate statements of a company’s financial well-being.
The income statement, which is also referred to as a profit and loss statement, shows the company’s revenue, expenses, and net profit over a period of time. On the income statement a company will record figures such as its sales, cost of goods sold, gross profit, and earnings per common share.
A cash flow statement shows the impact on cash over a period of time. It has three parts including the cash from operating activities, investing activities, and financing activities.
Finally, the balance sheet details the company’s assets, liabilities and stockholder’s equity. Unlike the income statement and cash flow statement, the balance sheet is a snapshot in time. Typically the balance sheet will be produced at the end of a fiscal year.
There are several basic accounting principals which apply to financial statements. One primary accounting principal is the adherence to certain accounting oversight or guidelines such as FASB, IASB, GAAP, and IFRS. Other basic accounting principals include periodicity, cash or accrued measurement, reporting, materiality, substance versus form, and depreciation. From these principals we are able to understand how financial statements are constructed and reported.
Real Estate Impacts on Financial Statements
The impact of real estate on financial statements is determined by the accounting oversight and guidelines followed by the company. Companies generally will use FASB, IASB, GAAP, or IFRS depending on the location of where their stock is traded or their headquarters is otherwise domiciled. The impacts of the following real estate transactions are, unless otherwise noted, specified by FASB and GAAP.
|Purchase||Operating interest expense; other occupancy expense; real estate depreciation||Acquisition outlays; debt acquisition||Cash; Property Plant and Equipment (PP&E); Mortgage notes payable|
|Sale||Operating mortgage expense; other occupancy expense (real estate taxes and insurance); Depreciation; discontinued operations||Divestiture activity: PP&E elimination; Financing activity: loan payoff||Cash; PP&E; Mortgages payable|
|Sale / Leaseback||Rent; Operating mortgage expense; Other occupancy expense; Depreciation; Discontinued operations||Divestiture activity: PP&E reduction; Financing activity: loan payoff||Cash; PP&E: real estate; Mortgages payable|
|Operating Lease||Rent; Other occupancy expense; Depreciation of tenant improvements (TIs); Depreciation of equipment||Depreciation; Capital expenditures (for TIs)||PP&E|
|Capital (Finance) Lease||Interest expense; Asset depreciation||Depreciation; Acquisition outlays; Financing activity||Total Capital Lease Property; Total Capital Lease Obligation|
The different between an operating and capital (finance) lease is important for accounting purposes. The Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 13 (FAS 13) explains the process for determining whether a lease is an operating lease or a capital (finance) lease. A capital (finance) lease is a lease which fits any of the following criteria:
An operating lease would not fit any of those criteria. The impact of whether an operating or capital (finance) lease can be profound on financial statements, particularly the Balance Sheet. The affect of a capital (finance) lease on financial statements is:
It is not that a capital (finance) lease is good or bad. The important thing for a supply chain real estate professional is to communicate with their Finance Department when they are considering a lease to make sure the lease is defined as an operating or capital lease and it aligns with the company’s financial objectives.
Lastly, in order to your company’s financial objectives it is important to know if your company is income statement or balance sheet driven. An easy way to determine if a company is balance or income statement driven is to look at how many charts detail income sheet or balance sheet metrics in an annual report.
If your company is income statement driven, it will focus on earnings and expenses in order to understand if the company is profitable. Growth companies often are income statement driven as investors will often care more about how much the company has grown and limited expenses over the prior year than their return on existing assets. Metrics such as Earnings Before Interest Taxes Depreciation and Amortization (EBITDA), EBIT, Earnings per Share (EPS), and Price to Earnings (P/E) are based on the income statement.
Conversely, if your company is balance sheet driven, it will often focus on returns on its assets and liquidity. Balance sheet driven companies are often mature, established companies whose investors care about obtaining a return on existing assets at the end of a financial period. . Metrics such as Return on Assets (ROA), Current Ratio (CR), and Quick Ratio (QR) are based on the balance sheet.
Upcoming Changes in Lease Accounting
On February 25, 2016 FASB issued Topic 842 which stated that all operating leases will be capitalized (on Balance Sheet) starting in fiscal years following December 15, 2018. Practically, companies will need to capitalize the prior two fiscal years in order to provide a coherent accounting history. The current operating and capital (finance) leases will be re-categorized into Type A Finance Leases and Type B Operating Leases. Both will be on the balance sheet, but treated differently.
Under Topic 842, Type A and Type B leases are treated as follows on the Income Statement and Balance Sheet:
Capitalizing both types of leases involves determining the term, which is the non-cancellable period, options are included if reasonably certain, variable lease payments, operating expenses, and discount of the Lessee’s incremental borrowing rate.
While most supply chain real estate professionals will not need to calculate the accounting impact of either type of lease, the important points to know are:
Supply Chain Real Estate News
Winco Foods opened a 800,000 square foot distribution center in Denton, Texas last week. The grocery store chain will employ 165 associates and can expand the distribution center by 130,000 square feet.
Amazon pre-leased a 1M square foot distribution center to be built by Goodman North America. Amazon will take occupancy in 2018.
A San Francisco startup is using warehouse space in San Francisco Bay to grow produce. Big wigs from Amazon and Google are betting on its success.
Dollar General announced last week that they acquired 103 acres in Florida, New York for $1.545 million. They plan to build a $91M distribution center which will employ 430 associates.
UPS broke ground last week on a $275M regional operations hub in Salt Lake City. The 840,000 SF facility is said to be one of its largest in its network.
Lighting is a critical component of today’s supply chain real estate. The use of light, whether artificial or natural, affects the costs, labor, compliance and environmental elements of an industrial operation. Therefore, facility decision makers and designers should have a keen awareness of how light is employed in their facilities. This post reviews the importance of light, the most common types of lights, and the use of lights in industrial properties.
Why is Lighting Important
The choice of lighting type and location can have a significant impact on overall operating costs. In non-climate controlled warehouses, lighting is the primary electricity use accounting for 34% of total electricity use and an average of $0.12 per square foot per year in US warehouses.  For example, a 500,000 square foot warehouse at $0.12 per square foot per year in lighting energy costs will equate to $60,000 per year or $600,000 on a 10 year lease. In addition to the electricity costs, acquisition of equipment and maintenance is also a concern.
Light is also an important consideration in maintaining workplace productivity and employee satisfaction. Lighting has been shown to have an impact on the ability for individual workers to perform tasks, with poor lighting having a significant adverse effect on productivity, physical, and mental well-being. 
Lighting is also important to government agencies and regulators. Due to energy efficiency and safety concerns, U.S. federal, state, and local agencies have instituted guidelines and requirements for the use of certain luminaires, or complete lighting units, in non-residential real estate. For example, the California Title 24 California Code of Regulations regulates nonresidential indoor lighting in order to limit the energy used by lighting in a building.  OSHA also has minimum lighting levels for certain tasks, such as driving industrial trucks or forklifts.
Lastly, lighting is important for the overall environmental impact of an operation. It is now common for companies to track their impact on the environment through metrics such as corporate sustainability. The use of energy efficient lighting can be an integral part of efforts to lower a company’s carbon footprint, a key element in sustainability.
Types of Industrial Lighting
Industrial lighting generally falls into four different categories of artificial light sources and natural lights. Within each category are subcategories typically describing the application environment in which the light would be used. The table below describes each category by its energy efficiency in lumens per watt, average lifetime of the bulbs, and its general use. Warehouse lighting above storage areas are typically separated into high and low bay lighting. High bay lighting is used in 20′ to 40′ mounting heights where low bay lighting is used in 15′ to 25′ mounting heights.
|Incandescent||4-17 lm/w||2-20,000 hours|
|High-intensity discharge||50-200 lm/w||1,800-4,500 hours|
|Fluorescent||52-100 lm/w||8,000-20,000 hours|
|LED||10-110 lm/w||50,000-100,000 hours|
Table reference for energy efficiency and lifetime: 
Image source: http://www.energy.ca.gov
Incandescent lighting is the oldest lighting technology of the four categories above and the most inefficient, converting less than 5% of the energy they use into visible light. With the advent of fluorescent lighting sales in the late 1930’s, the use of incandescent lighting has declined.
Image source: http://www.zoro.com
High-intensity discharge or HID lamps are a type of electrical gas-discharge lamp which produces light by producing an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed within a translucent tube. This tube is filled with gas and metal salts which typically give the lamp a name. Types of HID lamps include mercury-vapor, metal-halide (MH) lamps, ceramic MH lamps, sodium-vapor lamps, and xenon short-arc lamps.
Image source: http://www.zoro.com
A fluorescent lamp or tube is a low pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light. It is much more efficient than incandescent lamps and has largely replaced incandescent lighting in industrial uses. Modern uses of fluorescent lamps in industrial properties include the T8 and more recent T5 fluorescent lamps. T8 and T5 are just codes to indicate that the bulb is tubular, hence the T, and the diameter of the bulb. T5 bulbs are 40% smaller than T8 bulbs, measuring 5/8″ in diameter versus 1″ for T8s. T5 bulbs are more efficient and have better lumens per watt than T8 bulbs, but they are also more expensive.
Image source: http://www.1000bulbs.com
Finally, light emitting diode or LED lighting creates light through electroluminescence via a two-lead semiconductor. LEDs were first produced in 1962 and now are used in a wide variety of applications, including increasing use in industrial properties due to their significant energy efficiency.
Use of Lighting in Industrial Properties
A well-designed lighting system is a critical component of a successful industrial operation. Since specific tasks within an industrial operation are varied, the appropriate lighting requirements for each task must be considered. First, the quantity of illumination must be sufficient for the task or process. Second, there must be enough light to create a safe operational environment. Third, listed or approved lighting equipment should be used. Fourth, a lighting fixture layout should be created which is sustainable and promotes safety. Last, the energy, economic, and operating characteristics of the lighting system should considered.
The quality of light is measured in several different ways. Illuminance is the amount of light falling on a surface and is typically measured in lumens. The amount of lumens is expressed as either lux (lx) or footcandle (fc) measurements, where lux is the lumens per square meter and footcandles lumens per square foot. In addition, the color of light can be measured in terms of temperature (kelvin) and a color rendering index, and described in terms of the color seen by the eye.
Calculating lumens is typically done with a light meter, such as the one below. It is important to note that the measurement of light at a point is dependent on the distance between the lamp and the point where the light level is calculated. In addition, light can be measured in vertical and even horizontal planes.
Generally, the more active the area, the higher the light requirement. For example, lighting in storage areas may not require as much light as shipping and receiving areas. According to the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America’s Lighting Handbook, inactive or infrequent areas of us should have 50 lx or 5 fc while active or frequently areas of use should have 100 lx or 10 fc. In addition, areas where employees commonly read large labels may require 100 lx or 10 fc and for small labels 300 lx or 30 fc.
In summary, lighting is an important part of any industrial operation’s productivity, safety, and efficiency. Light impacts the operating costs, labor, compliance and environmental components of the supply chain and therefore should be a concern of any responsible supply chain manager.
 “Program for Improving Energy Economy and Efficiency in ECE Region.” Ambio 5.4 (1976): 195. Web.
 “How Lighting Affects the Productivity of Your Workers.” How Lighting Affects the Productivity of Your Workers – Blog | MBA@UNC. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 01 June 2015. Web. 08 Feb. 2017. <https://onlinemba.unc.edu/blog/how-lighting-affects-productivity/>.
 “Table of Contents.” Ornithological Monographs 76.1 (2013): n. pag. Title 24 California Code of Regulations. State of California. Web. 9 Feb. 2017. <http://www.energy.ca.gov/2015publications/CEC-400-2015-033/chapters/chapter_05_indoor_lighting.pdf>.
“Warehouse / Industrial Light Fixtures.” Industrial Light Fixtures | Warehouse-Lighting.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Feb. 2017.
“Architectural Lighting Design.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 08 Feb. 2017.
 Keefe, T.J. (2007). “The Nature of Light”. Archived from the original on 2012-04-23. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
 Nov 1, 2004 ByJoseph R. KnisleyLighting Consultant166 Articles. “Designing Lighting for a Warehouse.” N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Feb. 2017. <http://ecmweb.com/content/designing-lighting-warehouse>.
 “Lighting and Illumination.” Journal of the A.I.E.E. 43.8 (1924): 750-53. June 2004. Web. http://old1.teamster.org/sh/FactSheets/illumination.pdf
In this post I thought I would share my takeaways from a presentation given by Chris Thornberg of Beacon Economics this past Wednesday at the City of Santa Fe Springs City Hall. Many of you in Southern California are no doubt familiar with Chris and I found his themes to be fairly consistent with years previous, with notable exceptions.
The first exception to the last few years is, of course, the election of Donald Trump as President (inaugurated today, in fact). Chris made a point of emphasizing that the election has made economic forecasting even more challenging than it was before, simply because no one knows how many of President Trump’s promises will actually come to fruition.
As for the other points of emphasis, they are as follows:
In the supply chain real estate world, it is easy to see Chris’ points. The health of the US economy is expressing itself in historically high levels of demand for industrial real estate. Consumers are buying more and more goods online, changing the brick and mortar retail market to a final mile e-commerce one. In certain areas, this demand for supply chain real estate has led to unhealthy levels of supply (much like the California housing market). In some markets, there is less than 1% vacancy creating significant barriers to entry and rapidly rising real estate costs.
As part of my final project for the Global Logistics Specialist program at California State Long Beach (GLS Website), my team and I determined the cubic capacity and utilization for an entire network of fictitious warehouses run by a fictitious retailer. We found that the bay and column spacing within a warehouse can have a significant impact on key performance indicators (KPIs) for warehouse occupiers in ways that are not always obvious. In this post I discuss bays and column spacing in a warehouse and why they are important for supply chain real estate participants to consider when a) designing a new warehouse location and/or b) perhaps re-designing an existing warehouse.
The definition of bays and column spacing are similar but not always identical. I define bay areas as the floor areas in the warehouse not occupied by columns, walls or other permanent impediments. The length and width dimensions attributed to bay areas and column spacing are typically the same, with some notable exceptions. Bay areas can have different names in different areas of the warehouse. For example, a speed bay is an area adjacent to the loading areas ideally measuring at least 60′ from the dock to the first column. Used to move goods in a quick and efficient manner, any storage done within a speed bay is usually short-term.
Typical column spacing is the most common storage area between the columns, usually measured by the distance between the columns lengthwise and by depth away from the loading areas in a one sided or flow-through building. For example, if you were peering through the middle loading door of a building with 52′ x 50′ typical column spacing, 52′ would be the width between each column and 50′ would be the depth to the next column away from you. Atypical bays would include any areas along the non-loading walls.
So why are bays and column spacing important to supply chain practitioners? One reason is that they impact a warehouse’s space utilization. Improper column spacing can lead to wasting significant square footage areas and storage capacities due to less overall storage positions. Depending on a number of factors such as pallet size, minimum aisle width, and material handling equipment, a 52′ column spacing and a 56′ column spacing will likely result in very different levels of square footage utilization and storage capacities. Warehouse occupiers should calculate their optimal column spacing within a warehouse prior to occupancy in a new facility or as part of an audit to determine how well they are utilizing their storage capacity in an existing warehouse. According to Tompkins International, a formula for calculating optimal column spacing is:
[(Depth of Rack * 2) + Flue + Aisle Width] / # of Sections of Rack between Columns
The “Flue” is the space between the row of back to back racking, which is called the longitudinal flue.
Column spacing is also important because it influences the choice of material handling equipment. In order to utilize the available square foot and cubic capacities in a warehouse, certain material handling equipment are required. For example, according to Tompkins a 54′ column spacing allows for a 10′ aisle with typical 48″ racking. Since most counterbalanced forklifts will require a 12-15′ aisle, 54′ column spacing would require narrow aisle material handling equipment in order to maximize the usable square feet and cubic capacity. Therefore, racking decisions may require weighing the potential increased material handling costs with the cost of square foot and storage capacity.
A survey of new warehouses in Southern California show a variety of column spacing dimensions being used, mostly depending on the clear height being offered. For potential e-commerce fulfillment centers, required column spacing is a minimum of 56′-60′ to allow for the large order picking equipment common in the industry and required minimum clearance is 36’+ to allow for multi-level mezzanines/equipment. Two new developments at the Brickyard in Compton and Pacific Industrial/Clarion’s Imperial Distribution Center in Brea have 36′ clearance heights with 56′ x 50′ typical bays.
For new buildings in Southern California with 32′ clear, the typical bay is 52′ wide with varying depths. Western Realco’s new buildings at 4150 N. Palm Street in Fullerton and 3300 E. Birch Street in Brea have 52′ x 60′ typical column spacing. At Pacific Point East @ Douglas Park in Long Beach, Sares Regis has 52′ x 50′ typical column spacing as does Duke’s new warehouse in Lynwood.
Supply chain participants should be aware of how bay areas and column spacing in their warehouses impact their KPIs. If you need help evaluating new or existing warehouses in your supply chain, including evaluating existing column spacing, please feel free to reach out to me.
“SPEED BAY.” SPEED BAY. BOMA International, 2016. Web. 01 Dec. 2016.
Holste, Cliff. “Distribution Center Design: Designing from the Inside Out.” Distribution Center Design: Designing from the Inside Out. Supply Chain Digest, 11 Mar. 2008. Web. 01 Dec. 2016.
Johnson, Wendy. “The Importance of Optimal Column Spacing.” Tompkins International. Tompkins International, 30 July 2015. Web. 01 Dec. 2016.
“How to Optimize Your Existing Warehouse Space | Washington and California,.” Raymond Handling. Raymond Handling Concepts Corporation, 13 Aug. 2014. Web. 01 Dec. 2016.
Fallsway Equipment Company. “Warehouse Operation | Finding Your Aisle Dimensions.” Fallsway Equipment Company. Fallsway Equipment Company, 12 June 2014. Web. 01 Dec. 2016.
Foster, Margarita. “The View From E.CON: E-commerce Real Estate Evolves | NAIOP.” The View From E.CON: E-commerce Real Estate Evolves | NAIOP. NAIOP, 2015. Web. 01 Dec. 2016.
As a supply chain real estate practitioner, I always encourage my clients to engage the services of a qualified fire sprinkler consultant or similarly qualified employee when they evaluate the suitability of a real estate option. While experts should be consulted, actors in the supply chain should take the time to understand the basics regarding today’s fire sprinkler systems and potential pitfalls that could arise from false assumptions. In this post I briefly cover the history of the fire sprinkler system and its evolution to the current ESFR system. I also explain why an ESFR fire sprinkler system may not insure the full use of high rack storage.
According to “The Station House”, a newsletter produced by Tyco (link here), the history of fire suppression sprinkler systems goes back to the 1800’s with the founding of the Providence Steam and Gas Company in 1850, which would later become the Grinnell Company. In an effort to address the mill fires in New England, Providence tested various perforated pipe installations with actuators.
Through the next 100 years, we start to see a resemblance to modern sprinkler systems beginning in 1953, when the National Fire Protection Association issued the NFPA Pamphlet 13, which is the first code to recognize today’s standard sprinkler system. From the 1950’s to the early 1970’s, Ordinary Hazard systems were in standard use under the NFPA code. In the early 1970’s, the NFPA revised their standards to permit hydraulically calculated systems, which would eventually replace Ordinary Hazard systems in most warehouses by the 1980’s. Calculated systems are commonly shown in a volume per minute over an area calculation. Common examples are .33/3000, .45/3000, and .60/2000 calculated systems where the first number is the gallons per minute and the second the square footage.
Beginning in the 1980’s, the first fire sprinkler system was developed to address high rack storage without in-rack sprinkling. The Early Suppression Fast Response sprinkler, or ESFR, was both a concept and a type of sprinkler. The concept was to have a sprinkler capable of extinguishing fires in a high rack storage scenario. This contrasts with prior sprinkler systems, which were designed mostly to control fires until help arrived. In 1988, the first Factory Mutual (insurance company) approved ESFR sprinkler was introduced by Grinnell. Since that time, the ESFR sprinkler system has become the standard in protection for high rack storage.
One key component of the ESFR sprinkler system is the ESFR sprinkler head. Recent changes to the NFPA codes and today’s high rack storage heights require certain types of ESFR sprinkler heads to be used. These sprinkler heads are usually rated by what is called a “K factor”, or the coefficient of discharge. The larger the K factor, the more water it can discharge at a given pressure. K-14, K-17, K-16.8, K-22, K-25, and K28 are some examples of ESFR sprinkler head K factors.
The type of sprinkler heads and water pressure in an ESFR system is important to understanding high pile storage capacity for a given user. I have heard of several horror stories where companies have moved into a high cube warehouse with an ESFR system, only to learn that the sprinkler heads did not allow their desired use of the cube within the warehouse. In these events, typically the tenant will have to foot the bill to change out the heads-not an inexpensive proposition. In addition, changes to the sprinkler head may impact the required pressure-possibly requiring a modification to the pipe system. Again, not inexpensive.
In conclusion, fire sprinkler systems have evolved from little more than a perforated pipe to a highly technical engineered system capable of extinguishing the most combustible materials capable of being stored. Since fire codes and fire systems require professional interpretation and expertise, it is imperative that supply chain companies work with experts to mitigate any risk to their desired storage plans.
I was asked recently how many 53′ truck trailers could be stored on one acre of land and though I would share my answer, based on conversations with my clients and within my company. The first point to make about determining the storage capacity of land or any other two or three dimensional object is that it wholly depends on the configuration. A 30′ x 1452′ acre will have a significantly different storage capacity than a 209′ x 209′ acre. Assuming the acre is functional in shape, meaning closer to a square than a bowling alley, estimates typically range from 34-40 trailers per acre with no truck cab.
The second point to make is that as the land increases in size, the number of trailers that can typically be stored per acre goes up. For example, my team is marketing an 8 acre land parcel and a space engineering firm created a layout with 394 trailer parking spots for a total of 49 trailers per acre, with 23 trailers spots double stacked.